First Announcement

The Kick Off of PalMod Phase III will take place

11 & 12 June 2024

at DKRZ in Hamburg


PalMod Papers from 2024:

Butzin, M., Ye, Y., Völker, C., Gürses, Ö., Hauck, J., and Köhler, P.: Carbon isotopes in the marine biogeochemistry model FESOM2.1-REcoM3, Geosci. Model Dev., 17, 1709–1727,, 2024.

PalMod Papers from 2023:

Jonkers, L., Laepple, T., Rillo, M., Shi, X., Dolman, A., Lohmann, G., Paul, A., Mix A. & Kucera, M. (2023). Strong temperature gradients in the ice age North Atlantic Ocean revealed by plankton biogeography, Nat. Geo., Vol. 16, p.1114- 1119.

Mitsui, T., Willeit, M., and Boers, N.: Synchronization phenomena observed in glacial– interglacial cycles simulated in an Earth system model of intermediate complexity, Earth Syst. Dynam., 14, 1277–1294,, 2023.

Laepple, T., Ziegler, E., Weitzel, N. et al. Regional but not global temperature variability underestimated by climate models at supradecadal timescales. Nat. Geosci. 16, 958–966 (2023).
Barker, S., & Knorr, G. (2023). A systematic role for extreme ocean-atmosphere oscillations in the development of glacial conditions since the Mid Pleistocene Transition. Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, 38, e2023PA004690.

Dallmeyer A., Kirsten F, Bernbeck R, Böhmer T, Busch R, et al. (2023) Were climatic forcings the main driver for mid-holocene changes in settlement dynamics on the Varamin Plain (Central Iranian Plateau)?. PLOS ONE 18(10)

Chevalier, M., Dallmeyer, A., Weitzel, N., Li, C., Baudouin, J. P., Herzschuh, U., Cao, X. and Hense, A. (2023) Refining data–data and data–model vegetation comparisons using the Earth mover's distance (EMD).  Climate of the Past, 19 (5). pp. 1043-1060. DOI 10.5194/cp-19-1043-2023.

Freundt, A. , Schindlbeck-Belo, J. C. , Kutterolf, S. and Hopkins, J. L. (2023) Tephra layers in the marine environment: a review of properties and emplacement processes.  In: Volcanic Processes in the Sedimentary Record: When Volcanoes Meet the Environment. , ed. by Di Capua, A., De Rosa, R., Kereszturi, G., Le Pera, E., Rosi, M. and Watt, S. F. L.. Geological Society London Special Publications, 520. GSL (Geological Society London), London, DOI 10.1144/SP520-2021-50.

Sulzbach, R., Klemann, V., Knorr, G., Dobslaw, H., Dümpelmann, H., Lohmann, G. and Thomas, M. (2023) Evolution of Global Ocean Tide Levels Since the Last Glacial Maximum.  Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, 38 (5). Art.Nr. e2022PA004556. DOI 10.1029/2022PA004556.

Höning, D., Willeit, M., Calov, R., Klemann, V., Bagge, M. and Ganopolski, A. (2023) Multistability and Transient Response of the Greenland Ice Sheet to Anthropogenic CO2 Emissions.  Geophysical Research Letters, 50 (6). Art.Nr. e2022GL101827. DOI 10.1029/2022GL101827.

Johnson, A., Aschwanden, A., Albrecht, T. and Hock, R. (2023) Range of 21st century ice mass changes in the Filchner-Ronne region of Antarctica.  Journal of Glaciology. pp. 1-11. DOI 10.1017/jog.2023.10.

Mukherjee, A., Spilling, K., Heinemann, M., Vanharanta, M., Baumann, M. , Noche-Ferreira, A., Suessle, P. and Riebesell, U. (2023) Respiration rate scales inversely with sinking speed of settling marine aggregates.  PLoS ONE, 18 (3). Art.Nr. e0282294. DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0282294.

Martin, T. and Biastoch, A. (2023) On the ocean's response to enhanced Greenland runoff in model experiments: relevance of mesoscale dynamics and atmospheric coupling.  Ocean Science, 19 (1). pp. 141-167. DOI 10.5194/os-19-141-2023.

Heaton, T. J., Bard, E., Bronk Ramsey, C., Butzin, M., Hatté, C., Hughen, K. A., Köhler, P. and Reimer, P. J. (2023) A response to cummunity questions on the Marine20 Radiocarbon age calibration curve: marine reservoir ages and the calibration of 14C samples from the oceans.  Radiocarbon, 65 (1). pp. 247-273. DOI 10.1017/RDC.2022.66.

Schannwell, C., Mikolajewicz, U., Ziemen, F. and Kapsch, M. L. (2023) Sensitivity of Heinrich-type ice-sheet surge characteristics to boundary forcing perturbations.  Climate of the Past, 19 (1). pp. 179-198. DOI 10.5194/cp-19-179-2023.

Kleinen, T., Gromov, S., Steil, B., and Brovkin, V.: Atmospheric methane since the last glacial maximum was driven by wetland sources, Clim Past, 19, 1081−1099, doi: 10.5194/cp-19-1081-2023, 2023.




Ulrike Herzschuh (AWI), congratulations to Ulrike, who was today awarded a Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize by the German Research Foundation (DFG), which is considered the most important German research prize. She receives it for her outstanding work in the field of geoecology, with which she has made numerous contributions to the influence of climate fluctuations in recent Earth history on the biodiversity and functioning of polar regions. For more details please see the LINK to the DFG press release.

Gerrit Lohmann (AWI), together with two colleagues from Norway, has been awarded an ERC grant to run the project "i2B - Into the Blue", a project, that strongly benefits from modeling efforts in the PalMod project.  For more details please see the LINK to AWI press release.

Mojib Latif (GEOMAR) was awarded the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany by the Federal President on 3.10.2023 and honored for his long-standing commitment to climate protection. For details see LINK

Highlight PalMod Paper:

The conundrum of forest expansion after the last ice age

How fast the Northern Hemisphere forest macro ecosystem tracks strongly warming climates such as projected for the near future is largely unknown. In a recent study published in Nature Communication, Anne Dallmeyer, Thomas Kleinen, Martin Claußen (Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology and CEN, Uni. Hamburg), Nils Weitzel (now Uni. Tübingen), Xianyong Cao (now Chinese Academy of Sciences) and Ulrike Herzschuh (AWI and Uni. Potsdam) investigated the Northern Hemisphere forest expansion after the last glacial maximum. They compared a new synthesis of pollen-based reconstructions and a climate model simulation of the last 22,000 years. In the process, they discovered a difference of several thousand years in the expansion of forests. This conundrum challenges the paleo-climate community. Shortcomings in the model and the reconstructions could both contribute to this mismatch, but can technically not been disentangled so far, leaving the underlying causes unresolved.

Change in Northern Hemisphere forest coverage. Simulated (black) and reconstructed (red) mean forest cover on the Northern Hemisphere, north of 30oN, for the last 22,000 years and the respective uncertainty in forest cover (grey and red shadings). The late-glacial period (22-18 ka) and the Holocene are shaded.

The study was conducted as part of the BMBF-funded PalMod project ( and the CLICCS cluster of excellence (


Original paper:
Dallmeyer, A., Kleinen, T., Claussen, M., Weitzel, N., Cao, X. & Herzschuh, U. (2022). The deglacial forest conundrum. Nature Communications, 13: 6035. doi:10.1038/s41467-022-33646-6

Source: Max Planck Institute for Meteorology